Choose the most appropriate sentences from the following list ( a ~ h) for the gaps in the text (25―31). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
(b) However, these environmental problems were of a much smaller scale than the social and political crises which have occurred in recent years.
(c) In effect, the size of the population in many areas began to exceed the carrying capacity of the land, leading to competition for available resources.
(d) Populations of animals extended their range and as the period of global warming continued, humans extended their activities to areas that were once entirely uninhabitable.
(e) Species that had extended their range across the continent were forced back to isolated refuges where they could survive.
(f) The Sahara Desert itself moved southward across its entire length some 500 kilometers.
(g) This date approximates the greatest extension of the ice cover of the last major ice age.
(h) Where trees and plants had once provided sufficient food, the need to kill and process animals became just as important.
One of the fundamental human characteristics is the ability to adapt to changing circumstances, and while we are constantly confronted with the dangers of global warming, there is a degree of encouragement to be gained from looking at a reverse phenomenon that occurred around 16,000 BC. ( 25 ) While debate continues regarding precisely how low temperatures dropped, the calculations range from 8 to 11 °C below that of recent centuries.
Ice extended over much of North America and Europe, while glaciers flowed from the mountains not only of Asia and South America but also of Africa. Continental ice sheets 1.5 kilometers thick pressed down on the Earth's surface. ( 26 ) With all of this water locked up in ice, the levels of the planet's seas fell dramatically, as much as 130 meters in all.
With declines in temperatures and decreases in rainfall, the African continent was greatly affected, from the rainforests to the deserts. High winds struck the Sahara, generating sandstorms that dumped clouds of sand into the Atlantic Ocean. ( 27 ) In southern Africa, in the already dry Kalahari region, rainfall was reduced to half of the modern average, bringing intense dryness.
The maximum expansion of the glaciers brought hard times to both vegetation and animals, reducing populations to minimums in greatly restricted areas. ( 28 ) The human population was no different. It is believed that the equatorial and tropical regions of Africa are the cradle of human evolution, and although temperatures fell and the landscape turned drier even in these regions, conditions remained within the ranges that humans could endure. During warmer times, of course, groups of humans had migrated out of these regions as the human population grew. When conditions worsened, those who remained within the "cradle" areas were able to adapt, while the migrants found conditions elsewhere too difficult to survive.
Due to the fact that humans had originated in the tropics, they were physiologically adapted to cope with hot temperatures, but they were not prepared for the cold conditions that extended into the subtropical areas of Africa during the glacial period. Fire offered some relief from the cold, but it was the making of clothing that ensured long-term survival. The manufacture of clothing placed a premium on success in hunting animals, both for protein and for skins. ( 29 ) Additional skills were required for preparing the skins to make clothing and using other animal parts for utensils.
Once the climatic cycle turned and conditions in Africa improved, the dry landscape turned to lush savanna, grassland, and forest. When the rains returned, deserts were covered with vegetation within several hundred years. ( 30 ) With the extension of agriculture under more favorable climatic conditions, the human population increased rapidly. In attempting to increase food production, formerly uninhabited areas came to be used extensively. ( 31 ) While competition for diamonds, precious stones, and minerals often makes the news today, it is in fact the competition for more fundamental resources such as safe drinking water, grains, materials for clothing, and occasional meat that affects the future of the entire continent.
Society often presents a strange conflict of attitudes towards the aged. While the 100th birthday of the mother of the British queen was greeted with crowds of people filling central London to congratulate her, the aged in general are often treated with little respect. Although life expectancy has been growing, with the number of people over 80 years in the UK expected to reach 3.5 million by 2050, older people are more vulnerable than ever before. There is a growing need for services for older persons, but there is a shortage of people willing to work in such fields. Working with older persons is considered undemanding and requiring little training. This reflects a negative attitude towards older persons, and is in effect a kind of ageism, or unfair treatment of the aged.
This negative sense comes from a group being treated unfairly and in a way that implies that its members are of less value to society than others. The individual is neglected, and the whole group can be labeled with a stereotype such as "Old people are confused and dependent." Even such terms as "elderly" suggest that old people can be set apart from the rest of humanity when they are really no different from anyone else.
15. According to this passage, ageism includes
(a) calling old people bad names instead of respecting them.
(b) lowering the value of old people's contributions to-cociety.
(c) society's attitude towards jobs involving older persons.
(d) the increasing number of older persons who need help.
16. What solution might the writer suggest for the problem?
(a) Create training programs for helping older persons.
(b) Find ways to prove stereotypes are usually wrong.
(c) Treat older persons the same way as other persons.
(d) Try harder to understand the various causes of ageism.
Humans have long been troubled with the problem of whether they should give in to present temptation or resist it to obtain a more valuable reward in the future. One example well known to Western people is the story of Adam and Eve, the first man and woman, who lived in perfect contentment in paradise. There was only one rule they had to keep: not to eat the fruit of a certain tree. However, Satan, disguised as a snake, persuaded them to break the rule. They ate the forbidden fruit and were thus expelled from the Garden of Eden. By succumbing to the first temptation, they did not receive the reward of living in peace under God's care. If analyzed for its psychological meaning, this episode makes people aware that their choices could produce serious consequences, and it may be this awareness that makes human behavior truly unique. Only humans can make judgments about their desires, and whether fulfilling those desires will lead to beneficial or harmful outcomes.
According to one philosopher, humans form second-order desires, which are desires to curb their fundamental desires directly connected to basic needs. For example, an office worker experiences the desire to have a drink or two in a bar on the way home from work, but at the same time he may feel a second-order desire to remain sober to avoid the risks of damaging his liver and falling into ill health. In such a case, the man's first desire is for immediate pleasure, but his second-order desire for a beneficial outcome causes him to delay or disregard his initial feelings. Second-order desires emerge from our ability to foresee the future and recognize the long-term benefits of restraining our immediate impulses. This capacity to delay pleasure is essential to human achievement, since all progress in life, both at an individual and at a social level, depends on our ability to choose actions that will have benefits in the long run, and our ignoring or waiting for the satisfaction of our wants.
17. In the first paragraph, the story of Adam and Eve is given as an example of
(a) God's fierce anger at human disobedience.
(b) the difficulty of receiving God's reward.
(c) the human being's failure to delay pleasure.
(d) the suppressed exercise of free will by humans.
18. Which of the following is the best example of a second-order desire?
(a) A person sees a great film and decides to go to an acting school.
(b) A schoolchild saves money to donate to charity for poor people.
(c) A student feels sleepy but stays up late to prepare for an exam.
(d) A teacher stops scolding a student as he realizes it is a waste of time.
19. In this passage, the author describes the
(a) importance of morality in considering human wants and needs.
(b) long struggle that people have had against fundamental desires.
(c) remarkable ability of a few people to foresee the future.
(d) unique mechanism by which humans attain gratification.
Well-known speeches written in America often use expressions such as "our founders," "liberty," "freedom," and "democracy." These phrases invoke the founding principles of the United States of America and are usually taken from such texts as the Declaration of Independence, the American Constitution, and from past speeches by influential figures.
President Barack Obama's Inaugural Address in January 2009 referred several times to the remarkable endurance of early American settlers, describing how they conquered hardships and finally established America as a great nation. A very similar idea had been expressed 76 years previously, in 1933, in the middle of the Great Depression. In that speech, President Franklin D. Roosevelt encouraged the nation by invoking its founders' frontier spirit: "Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered ... we have still much to be thankful for."
Four years before his victorious presidential campaign, in his Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, Obama, then Illinois Senator, explained the "true genius of America," quoting famous passages from the Declaration of Independence. In that speech, Obama affirmed the American people's absolute right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," using terms and phrases from the Declaration just as Martin Luther King Jr. had done in his epoch-making speech of 1963.
Why do speakers like presidents and great political leaders appeal to the American people by citing symbolic events or famous phrases in their speeches? One reason seems to be that they hope to stimulate their nation by proposing continuity between the glorious days of the past, when critical issues were tackled, and the present. In his inauguration in 1961, at the time of the Cold War, for example, John F. Kennedy made a persuasive speech in which he called for Americans to "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country."
Young nations, such as the two-hundred-year-old United States of America, do not have a long, shared history, compared with countries such as Japan or France, and therefore constantly need to create a strong sense of unity and identity, to bind the constituents of the nation, without falling into self-seeking individualism. The formal speeches by national opinion leaders in America, along with repeated references to significant speeches of the past, historic declarations, and national icons such as the flag and the Great Seal, also contribute to this nation-building. Obama's popular, emphatic phrase "Yes, we can" may well be quoted by the future leaders to encourage their contemporaries.
20. Barack Obama quoted passages from the Declaration of Independence because he
(a) believed that people's absolute rights are indispensable for his policy making.
(b) knew that the Declaration was supported by a number of Americans.
(c) thought that the Declaration expresses the essential soul of America.
(d) wanted to imitate the speech of the late Martin Luther King Jr.
21. Franklin Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy both
(a) attempted to raise the morale of the people in the face of crisis.
(b) made speeches based on the military history of America.
(c) suggested that Americans learn from earlier misfortunes.
(d) used the rhetoric of frontier spirit to motivate their listeners.
22. Which influential speech or text is not directly quoted in the passage?
(a) Barack Obama's Keynote Address, 2004.
(b) John F. Kennedy's inaugural speech, 1961.
(c) The American Constitution.
(d) The Declaration of Independence.
23. Political speakers usually talk about history because
(a) it is important to learn from mistakes of the past.
(b) the achievements of the past can still inspire.
(c) the past and present are not related to each other.
(d) the problems of the past should be repaired.
24. According to the text,
(a) American people have the right to freedom under certain conditions.
(b) influential speeches help create national unity at times of crisis.
(c) the Declaration of Independence is the most quoted source mentioned.
(d) young nations are likely to have advantages over older nations.
We often express a state or feeling of being isolated or ( 1 ) with terms referring to coldness. The words "frosty" and "cold" are sometimes used to describe unkind or unfriendly people. To "get the cold shoulder" means to be rejected. If you ignore someone, you may leave the person "out in the cold." In ( 2 ), you exchange "warm" smiles with people you find pleasant and friendly, and it is always nice to get "a warm welcome" when visiting a new place. 訳→*1
Two professors of organizational behavior tried to prove this common association objectively. They conducted a study to test the idea that there is a ( 3) link between the sense of temperature and the feelings of social inclusion or isolation. 訳→*2
First, they put student volunteers into two groups. One group was asked to ( 4 ) a personal experience in which they were isolated from other people. Some students remembered their experiences of being bullied by classmates, and others ( 5 ) terrible moments they had experienced of getting a rejection from a club or a team. The other group recalled experiences of being ( 6 ) by friends and strangers. 訳→*3
The researchers then asked all the volunteers to guess the temperature in the laboratory they were in. Their answers ranged widely, from 12 to 40°C. As the researchers had expected, those who were requested to recall a socially isolating experience gave lower ( 7 ) than the other group. The findings suggest one of the many ways in which environment. 訳→*4
Answers→(((A) 1(c) 2(a) 3(c) 4(d) 5(d) 6(a) 7(b)))
There is a story from long ( 8 ) of an old lady who lived in Scotland. The old woman, Mrs Duncan, lived on her own, just ( 9 ) of the town, but on many evenings she would come to the town and visit some friends with whom she would ( 10 ) the evening playing cards and drinking whisky. The daughter of the old lady's friends, a girl of 17 years called Maggie, was rather religious in her opinions, and she did not approve of card-playing and whisky-drinking. So she made a plan to play a trick on the old woman, to frighten her and stop her nightly entertainment. Taking a large white sheet, Maggie went and sat at the side of the dark road, waiting for the old lady to ( 11 ) on her way home. 訳→*5
Mrs. Duncan had enjoyed a particularly good evening, and it was quite late as she walked, a little unsteadily, back along the darkened road. In the misty light of the moon, the young woman stood up, covered in her white sheet, ( 12 ) to shock the old lady. However, Mrs. Duncan just paused in her progress, and said, "Good evening, white spirit, and what are you doing here? And why is that dark demon behind you?" Maggie shrieked in fear and ran all the way back to her house, not ( 13 ) to look behind. For a long time after that, the young woman would not speak of the events of that evening, and was afraid to leave the house at night. But the old lady ( 14 ) to visit her friends for cards and whisky for many a year afterwards. 訳→*6
Answers→ (((B) 8(a) 9(d) 10(c) 11(c) 12(d) 13(a) 14(a)))
Assessment is the process of making judgments about students' progress and attainment. As I argue in Out of Our Minds, an assessment has two components: a description and an assessment. If you say that someone can run a mile in four minutes 01* can speak French, these are neutral descriptions of what someone can do. [ 1 ] The difference is that assessments compare individual performances with others and rate them against particular criteria.