早稲田文化構想 2010 大問Ⅱ


Society often presents a strange conflict of attitudes towards the aged. While the 100th birthday of the mother of the British queen was greeted with crowds of people filling central London to congratulate her, the aged in general are often treated with little respect. Although life expectancy has been growing, with the number of people over 80 years in the UK expected to reach 3.5 million by 2050, older people are more vulnerable than ever before. There is a growing need for services for older persons, but there is a shortage of people willing to work in such fields. Working with older persons is considered undemanding and requiring little training. This reflects a negative attitude towards older persons, and is in effect a kind of ageism, or unfair treatment of the aged.


This negative sense comes from a group being treated unfairly and in a way that implies that its members are of less value to society than others. The individual is neglected, and the whole group can be labeled with a stereotype such as "Old people are confused and dependent." Even such terms as "elderly" suggest that old people can be set apart from the rest of humanity when they are really no different from anyone else.



15. According to this passage, ageism includes

(a) calling old people bad names instead of respecting them.

(b) lowering the value of old people's contributions to society.

(c) society's attitude towards jobs involving older persons.

(d) the increasing number of older persons who need help.


16. What solution might the writer suggest for the problem?

(a) Create training programs for helping older persons.

(b) Find ways to prove stereotypes are usually wrong.

(c) Treat older persons the same way as other persons.

(d) Try harder to understand the various causes of ageism.





Humans have long been troubled with the problem of whether they should give in to present temptation or resist it to obtain a more valuable reward in the future. One example well known to Western people is the story of Adam and Eve, the first man and woman, who lived in perfect contentment in paradise. There was only one rule they had to keep: not to eat the fruit of a certain tree. However, Satan, disguised as a snake, persuaded them to break the rule. They ate the forbidden fruit and were thus expelled from the Garden of Eden. By succumbing to the first temptation, they did not receive the reward of living in peace under God's care. If analyzed for its psychological meaning, this episode makes people aware that their choices could produce serious consequences, and it may be this awareness that makes human behavior truly unique. Only humans can make judgments about their desires, and whether fulfilling those desires will lead to beneficial or harmful outcomes.



According to one philosopher, humans form second-order desires, which are desires to curb their fundamental desires directly connected to basic needs. For example, an office worker experiences the desire to have a drink or two in a bar on the way home from work, but at the same time he may feel a second-order desire to remain sober to avoid the risks of damaging his liver and falling into ill health. In such a case, the man's first desire is for immediate pleasure, but his second-order desire for a beneficial outcome causes him to delay or disregard his initial feelings. Second-order desires emerge from our ability to foresee the future and recognize the long-term benefits of restraining our immediate impulses. This capacity to delay pleasure is essential to human achievement, since all progress in life, both at an individual and at a social level, depends on our ability to choose actions that will have benefits in the long run, and our ignoring or waiting for the satisfaction of our wants.



17. In the first paragraph, the story of Adam and Eve is given as an example of

(a) God's fierce anger at human disobedience.

(b) the difficulty of receiving God's reward.

(c) the human being's failure to delay pleasure.

(d) the suppressed exercise of free will by humans.



18. Which of the following is the best example of a second-order desire?

(a) A person sees a great film and decides to go to an acting school.

(b) A schoolchild saves money to donate to charity for poor people.

(c) A student feels sleepy but stays up late to prepare for an exam.

(d) A teacher stops scolding a student as he realizes it is a waste of time.



19. In this passage, the author describes the

(a) importance of morality in considering human wants and needs.

(b) long struggle that people have had against fundamental desires.

(c) remarkable ability of a few people to foresee the future.

(d) unique mechanism by which humans attain gratification.



Well-known speeches written in America often use expressions such as "our founders," "liberty," "freedom," and "democracy." These phrases invoke the founding principles of the United States of America and are usually taken from such texts as the Declaration of Independence, the American Constitution, and from past speeches by influential figures.


 President Barack Obama's Inaugural Address in January 2009 referred several times to the remarkable endurance of early American settlers, describing how they conquered hardships and finally established America as a great nation. A very similar idea had been expressed 76 years previously, in 1933, in the middle of the Great Depression. In that speech, President Franklin D. Roosevelt encouraged the nation by invoking its founders' frontier spirit: "Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered ... we have still much to be thankful for."


Four years before his victorious presidential campaign, in his Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, Obama, then Illinois Senator, explained the "true genius of America," quoting famous passages from the Declaration of Independence. In that speech, Obama affirmed the American people's absolute right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," using terms and phrases from the Declaration just as Martin Luther King Jr. had done in his epoch-making speech of 1963.


Why do speakers like presidents and great political leaders appeal to the American people by citing symbolic events or famous phrases in their speeches? One reason seems to be that they hope to stimulate their nation by proposing continuity between the glorious days of the past, when critical issues were tackled, and the present. In his inauguration in 1961, at the time of the Cold War, for example, John F. Kennedy made a persuasive speech in which he called for Americans to "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country."


Young nations, such as the two-hundred-year-old United States of America, do not have a long, shared history, compared with countries such as Japan or France, and therefore constantly need to create a strong sense of unity and identity, to bind the constituents of the nation, without falling into self-seeking individualism. The formal speeches by national opinion leaders in America, along with repeated references to significant speeches of the past, historic declarations, and national icons such as the flag and the Great Seal, also contribute to this nation-building. Obama's popular, emphatic phrase "Yes, we can" may well be quoted by the future leaders to encourage their contemporaries.


20. Barack Obama quoted passages from the Declaration of Independence because he
(a) believed that people's absolute rights are indispensable for his policy making.
(b) knew that the Declaration was supported by a number of Americans.
(c) thought that the Declaration expresses the essential soul of America.
(d) wanted to imitate the speech of the late Martin Luther King Jr.


21. Franklin Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy both
(a) attempted to raise the morale of the people in the face of crisis.
(b) made speeches based on the military history of America.
(c) suggested that Americans learn from earlier misfortunes.
(d) used the rhetoric of frontier spirit to motivate their listeners.


22. Which influential speech or text is not directly quoted in the passage?
(a) Barack Obama's Keynote Address, 2004.
(b) John F. Kennedy's inaugural speech, 1961.
(c) The American Constitution.
(d) The Declaration of Independence.


23. Political speakers usually talk about history because
(a) it is important to learn from mistakes of the past.
(b) the achievements of the past can still inspire.
(c) the past and present are not related to each other.
(d) the problems of the past should be repaired.


24. According to the text,
(a) American people have the right to freedom under certain conditions.
(b) influential speeches help create national unity at times of crisis.
(c) the Declaration of Independence is the most quoted source mentioned.
(d) young nations are likely to have advantages over older nations.






*3:この文章によれば,老人差別が含むものは…(a)老人を尊敬しないで,悪口を言うこと」(b)社会への老人の貢献の価値を引き下げること (c) ◎老人に関わる仕事に対する社会の態度 (d) 援助を必要とする老人の増えつつある数

*4:著者はその問題に対するどんな解決法を提案しているだろうか? (a)老人を助ける訓練計画を作り出す (b)固定観念はたいてい間違っていることを証明する方法を見つける (c) ◎老人をそれ以外の人々と同じように扱う (d)老人差別のさまざまな原因を理解しようと,より熱心に努力する



*7:第1段で,アダムとイヴの話は…の例として挙げられている  (a) r人間が言うことを聞かなかったことへの神の激しい怒り  (b) 神の褒美を受け取ることの困難さ  (c) ◎人間が楽しみを先に延ばすことができなかったこと  (d)人間が自由意志の行使を抑えたこと

*8:第二の欲望の最もよい例は次のうちのどれか?  (a)人が素晴らしい映画を見て,俳優学校に行くことを決める (b) 児童が貧しい人々への慈善事業に寄付するためにお金を貯める  (c)◎学生が眠気を感じるが,試験準備のため遅くまで起きている  (d) 教師が時間の無駄遣いと悟って,学生を叱るのをやめる

*9:この文章で,著者が述べているのは…   (a)人間の欲望と欲求を考慮する際の道義的価値の重要性  (b)人々が根本的な欲望に逆らってきた長い闘い  (c)少数の人々の未来を予見する驚くべき能力  (d)◎人間が満足感に達する独特な仕組み


*11:バラク・オバマ大統領の2009年1月の就任演説は初期のアメリカ移住者たちの驚くべき忍耐に数回言及し,彼らがいかに困難を克服し,ついには偉大なる国家としてのアメリカをうち立てたかを述べた。とてもよく似た考えが76年前, 1933年に大恐慌のまっただ中で表明されていた。その演説でフランクリン=D.ルーズベルト大統領は,合衆国を築いた人たちの開拓者精神を引き合いに出して国民を励ました。「私たちの先祖が克服した危険に比べれば…まだ私たちには感謝すべきことが多いのです」

*12:勝利を博した大統領選挙の4年前, 2004年の民主党全国大会での基調演説で,当時イリノイ州選出の上院議員だったオバマは,独立宣言から有名な数節を引用しながら,「アメリカの真の本質」を説明した。その演説で,オバマは「生命,自由,幸福の追求」のアメリカ人の絶対的な権利を宣言し,マーティン=ルーサー=キング=ジュニアが1963年の画期的なスピーチでしたように独立宣言からの言葉や語句を用いた。


*14:アメリカ合衆国のような生まれてから200年しか経っていない若い国家は,日本やフランスのような国々と比べると国民が共有する長い歴史をもっていない。それゆえに,利己主義的個人主義に陥ることなく,強い一体感と独自性を生みだし,国家の構成要素を結びつける必要性が常にある。アメリカの国家的に影響力がある人の公式演説も,過去の重要な演説や歴史的宣言や国旗とか国寔のような国家の象徴に繰り返し言及することによって,この国家の形成に貢献しているのである。オバマの人気の高い力強い文句,“Yes,we can”は恐らく,未来の指導者たちによって同時代の人を励まそうとして引用されることであろう。


からである   (a)人々の絶対的権利は彼の政策立案に不可欠なものだと信じた  (b)その宣言は多くのアメリカ人に支持されていると知っていた  (c)◎その宣言はアメリカの本質的精神を表現するものだと思った  (d)故マーティン=ルーサー=キング=ジュニアの演説を真似したかった

*16:フランクリン=ルーズベルトとジョン=F.ケネディは二人とも…  (a)◎危機に直面した人々の士気を高めようと試みた  (b)アメリカの軍事史に基づいた演説をした  (c)アメリカ人が過去の逆境から学ぶことを提案した  (d)聞き手のやる気を起こさせるために開拓者精神のレトリックを使った

*17:文章の中に直接引用されていない有力な演説や文書はどれか? (a) 2004年のバラク=オバマの基調演説  (b)1961年のジョン=F.ケネディの就任演説  (c)◎アメリカ憲法  (d)独立宣言

*18:政治の演説者がたいてい歴史について語る理由は…からである   (a)過去の過ちから学ぶことが重要だ   (b)◎過去の業績は今でもなお人を奮い立たせることができる  (c)過去と現在はお互いに関係がない   (d)過去の問題は修復すべきだ

*19:問題文によれば,…   (a)アメリカ国民はある条件のもとで自由の権利をもっている  (b)影響力の強い演説は危機のとき,国家の一体感を生みだすのを助ける  (c)独立宣言はこの文章に出てくる中で最も引用される出典である  (d)若い国家は古い国家に対して有利である傾向がある